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Knowledge is a product of consciousness: it is the sum of one's identifications retained in some form. Or, in Ayn Rand's words, knowledge is "a mental grasp of a fact(s) of reality, reached either by perceptual observation or by a process of reason based on perceptual observation" (ITOE 35).


             Knowledge is the root of the hierarchy of psycho-epistemological 
             differential integration.
             Knowledge is what one holds as a mental representation of
             reality. As per AR, "a mental grasp of a fact(s)of reality."
             Knowledge may refer to objects or relations that are true or
             false, abstract or concrete. 
             Derivatively, a portion of knowledge exists as expository
             references retained on media in archives and libraries, etc.
             Within these Four Divisions, all other concepts are subsumed.  
             They are all inclusive, extensive and unlimited. 

     V1 IDEAL  (Reference)

               Reference is the constituent means of knowing. 
                Reference substantiates identity by labeling percepts, 
                concepts or units with words, audio-visual symbols of meaning.

                Knowledge is Reference; because Reference ...
                provides a perceptual handle by forging word-idea 
                associations, which serve as the means to retain and 
                recollect the contents of ones mind.  
                Subcategories of reference include: definition,
                description, classification, categorization, 
                natural and algorithmic languages, etc.  
     V3 REASON (Reference) 
     V4 REAL   (Reference)
Epistemology Topics
Senses | Consciousness | Volition | Concepts: Unit, Concept-Formation
Objectivity | Knowledge: Context, Hierarchy | Reason: Certainty, Truth, the Arbitrary | Emotions