Following the definition in OPAR ch. 5, certainty refers to a particular point on the continuum of knowledge: 'A conclusion is "certain" when the evidence in its favor is conclusive...the total of the available evidence points in a single direction...there is nothing to suggest even the possibility of another interpretation. There are, therefore, no longer any grounds for doubt.' (OPAR p. 179).
Grounds for doubt do not include Arbitrary claims.
|Senses | Consciousness | Volition | Concepts: Unit, Concept-Formation|
|Objectivity | Knowledge: Context, Hierarchy | Reason: Certainty, Truth, the Arbitrary | Emotions|